The basic knowledge of diamonds
1, Ingredients: mainly carbon c (content of 99.95%) and other trace elements.
2, the physical properties:
(1) Hardness: H = 10, the hardest material in nature, is nine times the red sapphire hardness of 150 times.
(2) color: colorless white mainly yellow, brown, pink, blue, green, red, brown, black and other colored diamonds, very rare rare.
(3) Dispersion: high dispersion (0.044), polished after processing to reflect the colorful light.
(4) glossy transparency: King Kong glossy, transparent to opaque.
(5) thermal conductivity: nature in the high thermal conductivity, thermal conductivity can be identified.
3, identification methods:
(1) Gloss: unique King Kong luster.
(2) density: 5.95g / cm3 is mainly bare diamond identification, hand weighs heavier than other gemstones of the same size.
(3) fire color: cut the perfect diamond fire color jumping feeling bright, bright but relatively soft, like drilling, such as the synthesis of cubic zirconia, but also fire color but more rigid monotonous.
(4) lipophilic hydrophobic: with a pen can be drawn on the diamond surface of a line with a pen to draw the line intermittent, the general hand touch can leave a very clear fingerprints.
(5) Ridge: natural diamond hardness between the large facet ridge straight and sharp, imitation of the ridge into a smooth shape with bumps.
4, Origin: Australia, Angola, Zaire, South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Russia, Canada, India, China. Australia's largest production, the origin of Shandong, Liaoning, Hunan and so on.
(1) color (color)
D 100 very white E 99 very white
F 98 excellent white G 97 excellent white
H 96 white I 95 yellowish white
J 94 yellowish white (brown) K 93 light yellow white
L 92 light yellow white M 91 light yellow N 90 light yellow
(2) clarity (clarity)
All defects in the diamond are called flaws and can be divided into internal flaws and external flaws. In the course of the sale, the defect is called the inclusions or inclusions.
A, the internal flaws: crystal inclusions, clouds, point clusters, feathers, the internal growth pattern, crack, the original original crystal face, empty, gap, scratches, laser holes, whisker waist.
B, external flaws: the original crystal face, external growth pattern, scratch, polished pattern, burn marks, additional facets, ridge wear.
a) completely no time (FL): 10 times in the mirror magnification conditions, the diamond inside and outside are flawless.
b) Internal Flawless (LC): 10x magnification The interior of the diamond is flawless and the outside may be slightly flawed.
c) Very small flaw (VVS): Diamond with extremely small flaws 10 times the microscope is almost impossible to observe, small dot-like body, cloud-like body, growth pattern, divided into VVS1 and VVS2.
d) slightly flawed (VS): with a small flaw, 10 times the microscope is more difficult to observe, divided into VS1 and VS2 micro-level above the naked eye is not visible level.
e) Defect grade (SI): Diamond has a small flaw, 10 times the microscope is easy to find, divided into SI1 and SI2, the naked eye is difficult to find.
f) Flaw (I): 10 times the mirror at a glance Naked eye can be divided into I1 does not affect the brightness, I2 affect the brightness, I3 affect the brightness and transparency.
(3) cut (cut)
a) standard cut can make diamonds bright, otherwise cut the proportion of improper, will greatly affect the brightness of diamonds and fire color to make the diamond bleak colorless, standard round diamond cutting 57 to 58 facets.
b) cut shape round, oval, olive, drop-shaped, heart-shaped, princess-shaped, emerald-shaped.
c) Four major cutting centers: Belgium / Antwerp, USA / New York, Israel / Tel Aviv, India / Mumbai.
d) evaluation criteria: the proportion of appropriate too thin fish-eye effect, too thick appear black.
(4) carat weight (carat)
1 g = 5 karats 1 carat = 0.2 g 1 carat = 100 cents The ratio of price and weight of diamonds is squared.